Transcript author: Edgar Gallart

00:00:00:00 My name is Joana, I am a research artist
00:00:06:12 and my work has touched many fields ... I have focused a lot on the online video surveillance ecosystem, internet infrastructures and above all the whole environmental part of data.
00:00:19:03 Impact that seems invisible. Film and data cannot be separated as long as production is now digital.
00:00:49:00 Piece made in 2014. Data from the University of Berkeley.
00:01:05:14 The Internet is probably the largest infrastructure that humanity has made but it is very invisible.
00:01:14:05 The only thing we see when we communicate over the internet are the interfaces.
00:01:22:17 Everything behind the interfaces is very opaque.
00:01:30:00 We have been sold the idea that it is a cloud, that it is up there, it does not pollute, it does not weigh ... it is a narrative that is very easy to understand.
00:01:45:07 That is why it is very far from reality.
00:01:50:07 In fact the internet is this: (image of many cables). The internet is very material, it is dirty, and it is also underground.
00:02:02:12 The information that goes through the air is minimal. Most of it is buried.
00:02:12:11 New York data center, the world's largest data center by number of connections.
00:02:18:14 Room where all the cables of the Atlantic, of the Atlantic Ocean enter.
00:02:27:20 From the Atlantic Ocean to Europe
00:02:36:02 This is also the internet (image of a bunch of cables
00:02:45:18 The Internet can only work with a large expenditure of energy.
00:02:53:00 Significant environmental impact that we do not see.
00:03:02:12 It is impossible to determine the exact emissions.
00:03:07:19 Impossible to calculate the consumption of our daily internet use. We don’t see all the infrastructure behind it.
00:03:34:13 Internet map (image). Backbone, the backbone of the Internet.
00:03:51:16 Different continents connected under the sea.
00:03:54:20 Something that surprised me a lot: in 2017 a study was published by a Dutch researcher (in the study of the energy expenditure of the internet there are more women than men)
00:04:24:00 This study determined that devices are the most polluting industry in the world, ahead of the food (meat), housing, transportation, coffee and aviation industries.
00:04:37:23 In 2008, the internet was responsible for 2% of global emissions which was more than the aviation industry.
00:04:58:12 Reference for calculations: 1MB = 7.072gr CO2 3 / 4G 1MB = 35.36gr CO2
00:05:27:08 This study was published at the University of Berkeley in 2008 and calculated the amount of CO2 generated by online advertising.
00:05:38:14 Any number we can take will be obsolete.
00:05:49:15 Reference in communication and public awareness issues.
00:06:03:20 Project. How to communicate to people? Transmitting data pollutes and pollutes a lot
00:07:15:05 First project: drawing of the number of trees that would be needed to absorb CO2 emissions which means being able to access Google.com.
00:08:14:16 Google.com has an average of 60,000 visits per second and the page weighs 2.5 Megas. Roughly calculated it leaves about 23 trees per second.
00:09:03:16 Another project (image of a work of art). German artist Michael Saup (1961, Hechingen) who in 2009 did this project that calculated the amount of coal that needed to be burned to serve a million views from a trailer.
00:10:07:02 The importance of representing graphically to integrate it into the social imagination.
00:10:29:13 Even more problematic is 5G:
00:10:31:13 (Image): 3G / 4G = 2GB / day 5G = 30GB / day
00:11:22:04 Can the planet take on this exorbitant growth?
00:11:39:00 (image). In terms of video ... In two months the number of devices connected to the Internet will be 3 times the number of inhabitants of planet earth.
00:11:53:20 We are talking about machines that consume a lot of resources.
00:12:06:01 You can see we are if it were a competing species.
00:12:26:15 It would take an individual 5 million years to see how much video is generated on the network during a month in 2020.
00:12:54:08 (image of a work). 10 minutes of kitten video equals 1g of CO2.
00:13:23:08 YouTube's annual energy consumption is equivalent to that of a small city like Frankfurt or Glasgow over the course of a year.
00:13:35:17 In 2013 the energy used by Facebook is the same as a country like Burkina Faso.
00:13:44:15 In 2016 Facebook or Google already used the same energy as a country like Turkey annually.
00:13:54:15 (image). Project that I will release next week. Try to calculate are all these processes that go beyond the interface, everything behind it.
00:14:17:16 I bought a book on Amazon and tracked, tracked, all the code behind all the interfaces that made me browse.
00:14:29:02 It is massive; they were over 8000 pages of code written with a total weight of 80 Megas.
00:14:38:06 Much of the energy needed to load all this code goes to the user.
00:15:11:16 (Image). This data is generated and lived in this type of data center infrastructure.
00:15:27:22 Facebook Data Center in Ireland. Hyperscale data centers.
00:15:42:16 These spaces can occupy about 160,000 square meters, ie about 24 football fields and there must be about 10 or 15 worldwide.
00:16:18:11 (image). One of the most dramatic problems of a data center is temperature. Most of a data center’s electricity is used to cool the data center.
00:16:44:10 Microsoft pilot project to put data centers under the sea.
00:17:13:06 How will these data centers heat the seabed?
00:17:20:16 (image). marine fauna in perfect harmony with data centers.
00:17:44:02 (image). Green Peace, 2017. Amount of renewable energies used by different companies.
00:18:00:16 Amazon, is by far the worst of all. In fact, Amazon, this year, did not want to explain the amount of energy generated by its operations.
00:18:10:19 In fact, they say they are 50% renewable, making sustainable energy but that is quite dubious.
00:18:22:02 Amazon, is especially critical. Google, Microsoft, Facebook are not. Amazon controls 35 or 40% of the entire cloud computing market. that’s why it’s so important to put the batteries on sustainability issues.
00:18:38:12 Then, however, we see this man opening a wind farm and now we are sustainable ...
00:19:03:15 The most cynical of all is that then these people are working hard with the fossil fuel industry. Fuel the future.
00:19:29:16 Services to extract oil more efficiently and more quickly.
00:19:39:22 (image). The digitaloilfield of the future
00:19:53:03 (images.) Microsoft and Google also work with the world's largest fossil companies.
00:20:05:23 And while these companies are investing money with partners against climate change ...
00:20:23:21 ... at the same time they put money in lobbies that reject climate change.
00:20:31:03 I explain all this because I think it is very important to understand all the cynicism behind it, this green washing, this image cleansing.
00:20:50:11 Demand that these companies do their job to be sustainable, especially because of the corporate social responsibility they have over the planet.
00:21:00:14 Thanks.

Credits:

Duration: 21m 13s

Recorded at: 15.11.2019

Joana Moll és artista i investigadora. Explora críticament la manera en què les narratives postcapitalistes afecten l’alfabetització de les màquines, els humans i els ecosistemes. Els temes que investiga tracten, principalment, sobre la materialitat d’internet, la vigilància, l’anàlisi de perfils socials i les interfícies. Ha presentat, exposat i editat la seva obra en diferents museus, centres d’art, universitats, festivals i publicacions d’arreu del món.

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